40張地圖解釋世界

2019-03-17 08:39:55
原創翻譯:龍騰網 www.ltaaa.com 翻譯:deflation 轉載請註明出處
論壇地址:www.ltaaa.com/bbs/thread-249369-1-1.htmlMaps can bea remarkably powerful tool for understanding the world and how it works, but they show only what you ask them to. So when we saw a post sweeping the Web titled "40 maps they didn't teach you in school," one of which happens to be a WorldViews original, I thought we might be able to contribute our own collection. Some of these are pretty nerdy, but I think they're no less fascinating and easily understandable. A majority are original to this blog (see our full maps coverage here), with others from a variety of sources. I've included a link for further reading on close to every one.
對於理解世界以及世界是如何運作的這兩方面來說,地圖是一種極其強大的工具。但是地圖只能夠解釋你提出的問題。因此,當我們在看到一個名為“他們沒有在學校里教給你的40張地圖”的帖子席捲網路,其中之一恰巧源於WorldViews(譯註:即此文章專欄)時,我覺得我們或許可以做一個我們自己的版本。有一些地圖可能過於書呆子氣,但是我覺得它們的迷人程度並沒有少一點兒,也很易於理解。其中大部分都是這個部落格原創的,另一些來源各異。我已經附上了連結,便於各位做擴展閱讀。(譯註:請注意很多原文處都附帶連結。感興趣請到原文處尋找。譯文處無連結。)
1. A political map of the world, circa 200 A.D.
1.世界政治地圖,約公元200年
Click to enlarge. (Imgur)
點擊放大(譯註:友情提示——所有圖片點擊均可放大)
What's more amazing: how much things have changed over the last 1,800 years, a major chunk of the civilizational history of humanity, or how many of this map's divisions are still with us today?
哪一個更令人驚訝:在近1800年以來,人類文明史上有多少事情已經滄海桑田;還是有多少地圖上的不同今天仍是如此?(譯註:求map's divisions的準確理解)
2. Where people are the most and least welcoming to foreigners
2.在哪裡人們最歡迎和最不歡迎外國人
民眾對外國遊客的態度
圖示小解:藍色越深歡迎,紅色越深越不歡迎
Click to enlarge. Data source: World Economic Forum. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
This might be useful in planning your next vacation, although there are some big surprises in the results.
這對計畫你的下個假期會有幫助,雖然結果可能會非常讓人吃驚。
3. The world's major writing systems
3.世界主要書寫系統
圖示從上到下依次為:拉丁文,斯拉夫字母,韓文,其他字母,阿拉伯文,其他希伯來字母,梵文,其他元音附標文字,音節文字,象形文字(譯註:非語言學專業,有誤請指教)
Click to enlarge. (Wikimedia Commons)
This map is a reminder that the world's divisions and commonalities go much deeper than national borders. It also helps to tell the stories of a few major events that still shape the globe, the echoes of which you can see in almost every map on this page:European colonialism, the Arabic-speakingIslamic conquestsof the 7th century, the Russian expansions of the 19th and 20th centuries, and the (still-ongoing!) unifications of India and China.
這張地圖提醒了我們世界的不同與共性,要比國界更加深遠。它還協助講述了依舊塑造著全球格局的一些主要事件。幾乎在這一頁每一張地圖上,你都能看到這些事件的餘威:歐洲殖民主義,7世紀講阿拉伯語的伊斯蘭的征服,19和20世紀俄羅斯的擴張,以及(依然持續著的!)印度以及中國的統一。
4. The best and worst places to be born
4.最佳與最糟出生地
圖示小解:藍色越深為越佳出生地,紅色越深為越糟出生地
Click to enlarge. Data source: Economist intelligence unit. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
Here'show they decided which countries are best to born in and what this map tells us about the world.
這裡是他們怎么認為出生於那些國家最好,以及這張地圖告訴我們的關於這個世界的信息。
5. World map of major religions
5.世界主要宗教
國家依其最主要宗教而標色。顏色越深表示這個主要宗教越流行。
圖示翻譯按原位置依次為:
基督教 佛教
穆斯林 猶太教
無所屬 無明顯主要宗教
印度教
Click to enlarge (Pew)
Read here about how Christianitycame to dominate so much of the globeand what that means today. Read below for more on the Islamic world.
請在這裡閱讀基督教是如何統治了地球上如此廣泛的區域的,以及在今天這意味著什麼。在下面可以看到更多關於伊斯蘭世界的話題。
6. The countries where people are the most and least emotional
6.人們最情緒化及最不情緒化的國家
顏色越靠上代表了越不情緒化;顏色越靠下表示越情緒化
Click to enlarge. Data source: Gallup (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
People in yellow countries are the least likely to report having emotional experiences of any kind, positive or negative. Purple countries are where people report experiencing the most feelings. If you're surprised to see that the United States is among the world's most emotional countries (but far from No. 1) or want to learn why some regions are so unemotional,you can read all about it here.
在黃顏色的國家中,人們最不可能報告他們有任何種(不管是正面還是負面的)的情緒體驗。紫色國家是人們反應他們經歷了最多種感覺的國家。如果你看到美國是世界上最情緒化的國家之一(但遠不是第一名)時感到很吃驚,或者想知道為什麼有一些地區如此非情緒化,你可以在這裡讀到全部。
7. A European missionary's map of Africa, circa 1908
7.歐洲在非洲的傳教地圖,約1908年
Click to enlarge (David Rumsey's historic map collection)
按圖示從上到下順序,依次為:英國,法國,義大利,德國,西班牙,葡萄牙,自由區,比利時,獨立。
I have this one hanging over my desk in part because of its appeal as a historic document (the borders are tellingly rough) but also as a reminder of the colonial legacy in Africa, which European powers divided up a century ago with little respect for how actual Africans wanted to be grouped. Those arbitrary borders are still with us today, in part because African leaders agreed not to dispute them when they won independence. The borderscontribute significantly to conflict and unrest on the continentbecause there are so many diverse communities forced together.
我在桌子上方掛了這樣一張地圖,某種程度上是因為它看上去像一個歷史檔案(邊界很明顯地很粗略),但也提醒了我們在非洲殖民遺產。歐洲各強權在一個世紀前分割了非洲,對非洲人希望如何分組幾乎沒有任何尊重。那些武斷的邊界今天仍在,某種程度上是因為在它們贏得獨立的時候,非洲領導人同意不對此爭論。這些邊界極大程度上導致了這個大陸上的衝突及動盪,因為很多不同的群體被迫共處。
8. Where people are the most and least racially tolerant
8.哪裡的人最能及最不能包容不同種族
當被問及他們不願意與之為鄰的類型時,選擇了“其他種族的人”這一項的百分比。
Click to enlarge. Data source: World Values Survey (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
People in blue countries are more likely to say that they would be OK with living next door to someone of a different race. People in red countries are less likely. The mapsuggests some big and potentially surprising lessons for how race is treated around the world. But it's an imperfect (and controversial) metric, so do readthese five insights from an ethnic conflict specialist on the map and what it tells us.
藍色國家的人更可能說,鄰居是另一個種族的人沒什麼關係。紅色國家的人就不那么可能了。這張地圖顯示了在世界上種族問題是如何被看待的。這是很大,也可能是很讓人吃驚的一課。但是這是一個不完美(並且有爭議)的測量標準,所以請閱讀種族衝突方面專家對地圖的五個觀察,以及它告訴了我們什麼。
9. The world's most and least ethnically diverse countries
9.世界上民族最多元及最不多元的國家
綠色越深為更多元,紅色越深為越不多元
Click to enlarge. Data source: Harvard Institute for Economic Research (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
This shows the world's most diverse countries, its most homogenousand, if you look closely, a whole lot more.
地圖顯示了世界上最多元的國家,最一致的國家,以及,如果你觀察得更仔細,其他更多信息。
10. Where people feel the most and least loved
10.在哪裡人們覺得最為被愛及最不被愛
Click to enlarge. Data source: Gallup (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
聲稱他們昨天感覺“非常”被愛的人的百分比
Red countries are where people feel the most loved; blue countries are where they feel the least loved.Here's the story behind those sadder, bluer spots on the map.
紅色國家是人們覺得最為被愛的地方;藍色國家是他們最少感覺被愛的國家。這裡是那些更悲傷的,地圖上藍色地區背後的故事。
11. A Russian professor thinks the U.S. will break up into these four countries
11.一位俄羅斯教授認為美國將分裂成為四個國家
(Laris Karklis/Washington Post)
Professor Igor Panarinbecame a minor celebrity in Russiawhen he first unveiled his grim prediction for the future of the United States, which was widely covered by Russian state media and treated as credible. Panarin said the United States would break apart under internal strain and form four different countries, with only one wholly independent while the others fell under foreign influence or control. I've included it both for a taste of how the United States is sometimes perceived abroad and to give American readers a sense for what it can feel like to have the outside world get your country so wildly wrong.
當Igor Panarin教授初次披露他對於美國未來的冷酷預測時,他在俄羅斯變得小有名氣。他的預測被俄羅斯官方媒體廣泛報導,並被認為是可靠的。Panarin說美國將會在內部緊張中分裂,成為四個不同的國家,且只有一個會完全獨立,其他的都會在外國影響或掌控中。我把這張圖收進來,一是為了顯示美國有時候是如何被外國認知的,另一方面也是想讓美國讀者體會一下,當外部世界對你的國家的認識如此荒謬時,感覺會如何。
12. Who loves and hates America
12.誰愛美國,誰恨美國
Click to enlarge. Data source: Pew (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
聲稱喜歡美國的人的百分比減去不喜歡美國的人的百分比。
People in blue countries are more likely to view the United States favorably; people in red countries are more likely to view it unfavorably.The map has some big implications for America's role in the world.
藍色國家的人更可能以讚許的眼光看待美國;紅色國家的人更可能以不快的眼光看待美國。這張地圖極大顯示了美國在世界上的角色。
13. How the U.S. and China compare on global popularity
13.在全球受歡迎程度上之中美比較
藍色越深,為較之中國更喜歡美國;紅色越深為較之美國更喜歡中國。淺紫色為基本相同
Blue countries view the U.S. more favorably than they do China; red countries are the reverse. Data source: Pew (Max Fisher/The Washington Post)
中美相較,藍色國家更喜歡美國;紅色國家反之。
This map is actually mostly good news for the United States.Here's why.
實際上這種地圖對美國是好訊息。這裡是為什麼。
14. China's disastrous passport
14.中國災難性的護照
圖上文字從左到右依次為:印度聲索;部分被中國聲索的印度行政區;被中國,越南,汶萊,菲律賓,馬來西亞聲索;台灣。
My annotation of a photo of China's new passport. (AP Photo/Ng Han Guan)
Sometimes maps can spark geopolitical events rather than just reflecting them, as China did when it issued new passports containing this map. Why the controversy? The areas I've highlighted in red are marked as Chinese on the map butactually are in dispute or are administered by other countries. This did notgo over well.
有時候地圖能導致地緣政治事件,而不僅僅是反應出地緣政治事件,就好比當中國發行帶有這張地圖的新護照時那樣。為什麼有爭論?我用紅色標出的地區在地圖上被當做中國的一部分,但是實際上是有爭議地區,或是被其他國家管理的地區。這可進展得不太好。
15. Gay rights around the world
15.全球同性戀權利情況
圖示按位置為:
同性戀婚姻合法 同性戀有罪化
同性結合合法 同性戀會被處以死刑 無法律允許同性戀結合或使其有罪化
16. Where people are the most and least tolerant of homosexuality
16.在哪裡人們對同性戀最包容及最不包容
Click to enlarge. Data source: Pew (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
當被問及“社會應當接受同性戀嗎?”時回答“是”的百分比
What thishas to do with gay rights.
這與同性戀權利有何關係
17. Languages and dialects of the Middle East and Central Asia
17.中東及中亞的語言及方言
Click to enlarge. Each color represents a language group, with shades for each dialect. (The Gulf/2000 Project at Columbia University)
每種顏色代表了一種語言群,不同的深淺度表示不同的方言。
The first thing this map shows you is the remarkable diversity in one of the world's oldest and most storied regions, from Iraq in the West all the way to China in the East and Russia in the North. There are a hundred other stories embedded in here: the expansion of Iran beyond just Persian-speaking peoples, the fracturing of Afghanistan and Pakistan, and the really stunning diversity packed into the Caucasus, which includes thetroubled Russian regions of Chechnya and Dagestan.
這張地圖告訴你的第一件事就是,在這個世界上最古老,有著最多故事的地區(從西邊伊拉克一直到東邊的中國和北邊的俄羅斯),多樣性是多么地顯著。這裡也深藏著上百個其他的故事:伊拉克的擴張遠超波斯語地區;阿富汗和巴基斯坦的破裂;高加索地區令人吃驚的多樣性,包括了麻煩不斷的俄羅斯車臣和達吉斯坦地區。
18. Where people smoke the most (and least) cigarettes per person
18.在哪裡每人抽菸最多/最少
Annual per capita cigarette consumption rates. Data sources: World Lung Foundation and American Cancer Society. (Max Fisher / Washington Post)
年度每人消費香菸數。
Read more here about Russia's cigarette problem, which costs the country an estimated $48 billion every year, and about the other smoking trends seen in the map.
請在這裡閱讀俄羅斯的香菸問題。俄羅斯每年在香菸上的花費估價為480億美元。其他關於抽菸的趨勢,請看地圖。
19. Economic inequality around the world
19.世界貧富差距
Higher gini coefficient scores indicate higher economic inequality. (Wikimedia Commons)
基尼指數越高,表示貧富差距越大。
This map shows each country's gini coefficient, which measures economic inequality. The red countries are the most unequal under the metric, and the green countries are the closest to nationwide economic equality.More here.
這張地圖顯示了每個國家的基尼指數,即測量貧富差距的指數。紅色的國家是在此測量方法下貧富差距最大的,綠色的國家是最接近平均的。
20. How the U.S. compares to the world on economic inequality
20.與世界其他國家相比,美國的貧富差距
Click to enlarge. (Max Fisher)
Blue countries are more equal than the U.S., red countries are less equal. This map gives you a sense of just how severe economic inequality is in the United States; much higher than in any other developed country, and most developing countries as well.
藍色國家貧富差距小於美國,紅色國家大於美國(灰色為沒有數據,紫色即美國)。這張地圖能讓你對美國貧富差距的嚴重程度有所認知。比任何已開發國家都更嚴重,比大多數開發中國家也更嚴重。
21. Global crop yields are stagnating
21.全球糧食產量不景氣
圖示從上至下:產量從未提高;產量無提高;產量衰竭;產量大幅提高;產量適度提高;產量緩慢提高
One of four maps showing projected changes in major crop yields. (University of Minnesota)
四幅地圖之一顯示了主要糧食產地的預計變化。
A University of Minnesota study recently published in the journal Nature found that a significant share of the world's crop-growing regions are seeing growth stagnate, slow or even collapse. They published three other maps;see the others and why they think it's so important to "sound the alert" here.
明尼蘇達州一所大學最近在《自然》雜誌上公布的研究發現,世界大部分糧食增產地區都將迎來無增長,緩慢增長,甚至是減產。他們還公布了其他三張圖片;請看其他圖片,以及為什麼他們認為“發聲警醒”是很重要的。
22. The best and worst countries to be a mother
22.最適宜做母親及最不適宜做母親的國家
Click to enlarge. Data source: Save the Children. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
“拯救兒童”2013年母親指數。藍色越深為為母親提供的條件越好,紅色越深為越差。
A international NGO designed a complex formula to indicate which countries are better or worse for mothers.Click here to see what their formula measures and to read about the study's implications for mothers worldwide.
一個國際非政府組織設計了一個複雜公式,來顯示那個國家對母親更有利或者更糟糕。請點擊這裡了解這個公式測量了什麼,並閱讀這個研究在世界範圍內對母親的印象。
23. How al-Qaeda is changing
23.基地組織是如何變化的
(The Washington Post)
綠色為影響力上升地區,橙色為影響力下降地區。主要講述了現在在不同地區的組織成員數
This map of core al-Qaeda and its affiliatestells the story of its recent decline, but it also reminds us of the group's ability to continue branching out.
這個關於核心基地組織及其分會的地圖講述了它近期的衰敗,但也提醒了我們這個組織擴大規模的能力
24. More than half of humanity lives inside this circle
24.超過一半的人類生活在這個圓圈裡
(Imgur)
It's even more amazing when you see the numbers broken down.
當你看到數字時會更吃驚。
25. Legal systems of the world
25.世界法律系統
Click to enlarge. (Wikimedia Commons)
圖示從上至下依次為:大陸法系,海洋法系,習慣法,宗教法,大陸法及海洋法,未知。
One reason I find this map fascinating is it shows how British colonialism took the English "common law" legal system -- once nearly unique in the world -- and has now spread it across every continent. You can also see that religious law is unique to Islamic countries (although it didn't use to be) and that customary law, once near-global, is now almost extinct.
我認為這張地圖吸引人的原因之一是,它顯示了英國的殖民主義如何傳播了英國的海洋法系。它曾經一度是獨一無二的,但現在已經傳遍了每一塊大陸。你還能看到宗教法是伊斯蘭國家獨有的(雖然曾經並不是這樣),以及習慣法,曾經幾乎是全球都在使用的法系,現在已幾近消失。
26. How far Hamas's rockets can reach into Israel
26.伊斯蘭抵抗運動組織的火箭能到達以色列多深處
View GazaMissiles in a larger map
This helps drive home why Israel is so concerned about Hamas, the Gaza-based Islamist militant group, andin particular about its access to Iranian-made Fajr-5 rockets. Those are the ones that can reach into the light-yellow region.
這個能夠幫助解釋為什麼以色列對伊斯蘭抵抗運動組織,加薩走廊的伊斯蘭教的武裝組織,如此擔憂。尤其是對其使用伊朗產的Fajr-5火箭如此擔憂。他們能夠到達圖中的淺黃色區域。
27. North Korea's missile range
27.朝鮮的飛彈射程
(Voice of America)
綠色為服役中,紅色為測試發射中,淺粉色為建造中。
列表第一欄為不同型號,第二欄為射程,最後為長度。
North Korea makes its missile program sound like a terrifying and immediate threat to the United States, but, as this map demonstrates, that rhetoric far exceeds actual capability.
朝鮮讓它的飛彈項目聽起來極為可怕,對美國有即刻威脅。但是,如這個地圖所闡述的,修辭遠超其實際能力。
28. Child poverty in the developed world
28.已開發國家中的兒童貧窮情況
Click to enlarge. Data source: UNICEF. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
圖示為兒童相對貧窮率。
The United Statesranks 34th out of the developed world's 35 countriesby child poverty rates, above only Romania. The United Statesdoesn't do much better on overall child well-being.
在兒童貧窮率上,美國在35個已開發國家中排名34,只比羅馬尼亞高。美國在總的兒童福利上做得也不比這個好。
29. The cancer villages of China
29.中國癌症村
Locations of communities where cancer rates have spiked recently. (Global Times via Weibo)
近期癌症高發地區的位置。
China's problem with "cancer villages," or communities where cancer rates are spiking, thought to be due to rapidly worsening pollution, have become such a big problem that even Communist Party-run outlet Global Timesfelt compelled to share this map on Chinese social media.
中國“癌症村”,或者說是癌症高發地區的問題,被認為是急劇惡化的污染的結果。這個問題已經嚴重到共產黨管理的《環球時報》也認為不得不在中國社會媒體上公布這張圖片了。
30. What Europeans think about the European Union
30.歐洲人是如何看待歐盟的
Data source: Eurobarometer. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
2011年5月歐盟委員會調查:認為歐盟成員國身份對其國家有利的百分比減去認為有害的百分比
Europe's economic slump is no secret, but how people within the European Union feel about their big collective experiment can very widely. This map isa pretty telling indicationof whom the E.U. has helped, whom it has hurt and who think they shouldn't really count as European (read: the United Kingdom).
歐洲的經濟衰落不是一個秘密,但是歐盟國家民眾對於這個大型集體試驗的感覺大相逕庭。這張地圖極清楚地表現出了歐盟幫助了哪些國家,傷害了哪些國家,又有哪個國家的人並不認為他們是歐洲人(讀作:英國)。
31. Meet the world's 26 remaining monarchies
31.看看依然保持君主制的26個國家
(Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey/Washington Post)
圖示按位置為:
君主是國家元首 君主是名義領袖
君主與元首有一樣的權利大英國協(名義領袖) 無君主
There are barely two dozen left, and only 11 of them are really still in charge, but they've all got a story to tell.Read a mini-bio of each one here.
僅剩有2打,其中僅有11個依然掌權,但是他們都有故事可以講述。請閱讀每一個的迷你傳記。
32. The diversity of the Levant
32.累范特的多樣性
This color-coded map shows the different ethnic groups of Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and Israel. There's an awful lot of history packed into this corner of the world -- and maybe some of the deepest ethnic and religious animosities anywhere in the world.
這個用顏色標註的地圖顯示了敘利亞,黎巴嫩,約旦和以色列的不同民族組成。在世界的這一角,有著極多的歷史。有一些可能是這個世界上最深的民族與宗教仇恨。
33. The nuclear powers, after the Cold War
33.冷戰後的核能力
Click to enlarge. (International Law and Policy Institute)
圖示從上至下:有核武器的北約成員國;在北約/美國核保護傘下的國家;紐西蘭選擇放棄美國核保護傘;俄羅斯;與俄羅斯為安全聯盟的國家;其他擁有核武器國家
The Cold War may have ended, but its thousands of nuclear warheads are still around -- and often still divided along the same lines. This map shows in blue the Russian "umbrella states," which are formally under the protection of Russian nuclear weapons, and in orange the "umbrella states" protected by the U.S./NATO. The five other nuclear powers -- Israel, Pakistan, India, China and North Korea -- are in gray.
冷戰或許結束了,但是上千枚的核彈頭還在,並且依然分布在同樣的地方。這張地圖將在俄羅斯核保護傘下的國家標為藍色,將美國/北約核保護傘下的國家標為橙色。其他五個有核能力的國家——以色列,巴基斯坦,印度,中國和朝鮮——為灰色。
34. How people think their economies are doing
34.人們認為他們的經濟怎么樣
Click to enlarge. Data source: Gallup (Max Fisher/Washington Post)[/caption]
People in red countries are pessimistic about their country's economy; people in blue countries are more optimistic.With a handful of exceptions (cough cough, China), economists seem to agree.
蓋洛普經濟信心指數。藍色越深為越樂觀,紅色越深為越悲觀,淺紫色為中立。
紅色國家的人對於他們國家的經濟持悲觀態度;藍色國家的人更樂觀。也有一些例外(咳咳,中國),經濟學家看上去也同意。
35. A partial map of geopolitical anomalies
35.地緣政治異常現象的局部地圖
Click to enlarge. (Martin Lewis/Stanford University)
比較多。關於中國的就是西部“不自治的自治區”,與印度接壤處“爭議邊境”,“看起來像國家的特別行政區”(港澳),“不被承認的國家”(台灣),釣魚島處“爭議島嶼”。以及南海“多國家聲索”。
Each of these red markers cheekily indicates some unusual or unique phenomenon -- for example, Abkhazia, the "barely recognized puppet state" just between Russia and Georgia. (Read more onAbkhazia and other not-yet-real countries here.) My favorite may be the various overseas French territories, such as French Guyana, that are simply and accurately labeled "France." The map was designed by Stanford Professor Martin Lewis;read his full post explaining the map here.
每一處紅色標記都厚臉皮地表示一些不尋常或者第一無二的現象——比如,阿布哈茲,“極少被承認的傀儡國家”就在俄羅斯和喬治亞中間。(請在這裡閱讀更多關於阿布哈茲和其他還不是真的的國家。)我最喜歡的或許是各式各樣的法國海外領土,比如法屬蓋亞那,僅被簡單和準確地標註為“法國”。這個地圖由斯坦福教授Martin Lewis設計;在這裡閱讀他的完整解釋地圖的帖子。
36. Where the atheists live
36.無神論者住在哪
圖示:認為他們自己是“堅定的無神論者”的百分比
Click to enlarge. Data source: WIN/Gallup International poll. (Max Fisher and Caitlin Dewey/Washington Post)
Plenty of godlessness in China, Japan and a few European countries, perhaps unsurprisingly. Butthere are lot more atheists in places like Saudi Arabia than you might think, despite the fact that it's considered a serious crime.
在中國,日本以及一些歐洲國家裡,有大量無神主義。或許這並不讓人吃驚。但是在諸如沙烏地阿拉伯這樣的地方,也有比你想像得要多的無神論者,雖然這被認為是嚴重的罪行。
37. What the Muslim world believes, part 1: democracy
37.穆斯林世界相信什麼,第一部分:民主
Click to enlarge. Data source: Pew. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
聲稱與“強有力的領導人”相比,更喜歡民主的穆斯林的百分比
The first of three maps from a comprehensive study on attitudes and views in the Muslim world (full breakdown of the report here) shows that most Muslims broadly support democracy, with a few telling exceptions.
三張地圖來源於一個關於穆斯林世界態度和看法的綜合研究(完整報導在這裡)。第一張顯示了大多數穆斯林廣泛支持民主,只有少數例外。
38. What the Muslim world believes, part 2: religious conflict
38.穆斯林世界相信什麼,第二部分:宗教衝突
Click to enlarge. Data source: Pew. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
認為宗教衝突是自己國家的“一個非常大的問題”的穆斯林百分比
Significant shares of just about every large Muslim population worry about religious conflict (there is a widespread view in many Muslim-majority countries that the religion is under siege from the outside world). That share is more than half in four countries: Tunisia, Pakistan, Nigeria and Niger.
幾乎每個大型穆斯林群體中的顯著比例人口,都擔心宗教衝突(在許多穆斯林為主的國家中,都有一個廣泛觀點,即宗教被外部世界所包圍)。這個比例在四個國家中過半:突尼西亞,巴基斯坦,奈及利亞和尼日。
39. What the Muslim world believes, part 3: honor killings
39.穆斯林世界相信什麼,第三部分:榮譽謀殺
Click to enlarge. Data source: Pew. (Max Fisher/Washington Post)
聲稱對於女性的榮譽謀殺從不是公正的的穆斯林百分比
Red indicates countries where most surveyed Muslims believe that "honor killings" -- the practice of killing someone, typically a member of your own family, for having sex out of wedlock -- are sometimes justified. Blue indicates countries where most surveyed Muslims believe it is never justified.
紅色表示大多數被調查穆斯林認為榮譽謀殺(因為婚外性殺死某個人,自己家族成員為典型)有時候是公正的。藍色表示大多數被訪穆斯林認為這從不會是公正的。
40. The world as seen from space, over a 12-month time-lapse
40.從太空中看12個月的世界
This NASA moving image, recorded by satellite over a full year as part of their Blue Marble Project, shows the ebb and flow of the seasons and vegetation. Both are absolutely crucial factors in every facet of human existence -- so crucial we barely even think about them. It's also a reminder that the Earth is, for all its political and social and religious divisions, still unified by the natural phenomena that make everything else possible.
這個NASA動圖是作為Blue Marble計畫的一部分,由衛星在一整年裡記錄下來的。它顯示了季節和植物的衰退和流動。季節和植物都是人類存在的每個方面的絕對關鍵因素——太過關鍵,以至於我們都很少去想一想它們。它也提醒了我們,即便地球上有各種政治和社會的劃分,但是自然現象是統一的,而這是其他任何可能性的前提。
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