26個字母及音標

2019-03-22 21:21:37

² 英語字母中有一些含有共同的元音音素,如:

1)含元音音素[ei]

字母: Aa Hh Jj Kk

音標: [ei] [eit∫] [dZei] [kei]

2) 含元音音素[i:]

字母: Bb Cc Dd Ee Gg Pp Tt Vv

音標: [bi:] [si:] [di:] [i:] [dZi:] [pi:] [ti:] [vi:]

3) 含元音音素[e]

字母: Ff Ll Mm Nn Ss Xx Zz

音標: [ef] [el] [em] [en] [es] [eks] [zed]

4) 含元音音素[ju:]

字母: Uu Qq Ww

音標: [ju:] [kju:] [`dVblju:]

5) 含元音音素[Ai]

字母: Ii Yy

音標: [Ai] [wAi]

英語發音規則

一、元音字母在重讀音節中的讀音

a 在開音節中讀[ei] name plane Jane baby cake

在閉音節中 [Q] bag dad hat map black back

e 在開音節中 [i:] he these me Chinese

在閉音節中 [e] bed let pen desk yes egg

i 在開音節中 [Ai] bike drive time nice kite

在閉音節中 [ i ] fish big drink sit milk swim

o 在開音節中 [?u] those close go home no

在閉音節中 [O] clock not box shop sock

u 在開音節中 [ju:] student excuse duty Tuesday

在閉音節中 [V] bus cup jump much lunch

² 在開音節中,元音字母u在輔音字母j, l ,r ,s後面時讀[u:]音,例如:June blue ruler super。

二、元音字母在非重讀音節中的讀音

a [?] China another woman breakfast

[ i ] orange comrade village cabbage

e [?] hundred student open weekend

[ i ] chicken pocket begin children

i [?]/[ i ] holiday beautiful family animal

[ai] exercise satellite

o [?] second tonight somebody welcome

[?u] also zero photo

u [?] autumn diffcult

[ju:] popular congratulation January

² 動詞中的a如果處在開音節位置,a讀[ei]音,例如:operate

² u處在開音節位置,又在輔音字母j、l、r、s後面時,讀[u(:)]音,例如:July、influence、February issue

三、元音字母在重讀音節中的特殊讀音

1、a在[w]音後面讀 [O ] want what watch wash quality

a在f、n、 sk 、ph 、sp 、ss 、st 、th前時讀 [A:]

after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father

2、i在-nd、 -ld和gh前 讀[Ai] 如: find child light high

3、o在-st、 -ld前讀[?u] 如: most postcard old cold

4、o在m、 n 、v 、th前 讀[V] 如: come monkey love mother

四、-r音節元音字組在重讀音節中的讀音

1、ar 一般讀[A:] car farm dark sharp

在[w]後讀[O:] warm quarter towards

2、or [O:] 如: forty morning short

or在[w]音後面 讀 [E:] word worker worse

3、er、 ir、 ur讀 [E:] 如: certainly bird Thursday

² 輔音字母r雙寫時,前面的元音字母不能與r構成 -r音節,而是按重讀閉音節的 拼讀規則發音.例如: carry sorry hurry

² -r音節在非重讀音節中通常讀[?]音,例如:dollar teacher martyr forget Saturday

五、-re音節元音字組在重讀音節中的讀音

元音字組 讀 音 例 詞

1are [C?] care dare hare

2ere [i?] here mere

3ire [Ai?] fire hire wire

4ore [O:] more score before shore bore

5ure [ju:?] pure cure

² are ere ire ore很少出現在非重讀音節中,ure在非重讀音節中讀[?]音,例如:picture pleasure

² 重讀元音字母加r,再加非重讀元字組時,重讀元音字母應按-re音節拼讀規則拼讀,字母r讀[r]音. 例如: parent zero story during inspiring

² 某些常用詞及多音節詞經常出現長音短化現象。例如:orange、very、 American、paragraph

六、元音字組在重讀音節中的讀音

元音字組或字群

1ai/ay讀音[ei] afraid rain wait day play

2air 讀音[e?] air hair chair pair repair

3al 讀音[O:l] small ball talk wall all always also salt almost bald

讀音[A:] half calm palm

4au/aw讀音[O:] autumn daughter draw

5ea讀音 [i:] teach easy cheap please

讀音[e] heavy bread sweater weather

讀音[ei] break great

6ear讀音[i?] hear dear near clear year

讀音[C?] bear pear wear

讀音[Z:] earth learn early

7ee 讀音[i:] jeep week green three

8eer 讀音[i?]] pioneer deer beer

9ei/ey讀音[ei] eight neighbour they

讀音[i:] either key

10eu/ewjlrs後讀 [ju:] new few newspaper

讀音[u:] flew brew

11ie/ei [s]音之後 [i:] piece field receive

12oa讀音[?u] coat Joan boat goal

13oar/oor讀音[O:] roar board door floor

14oi/oy 讀音[Oi ] noise point boy toilet

15oo 讀音[u:] broom food tooth school

讀音[u] book look cook foot good

16ou/ow讀音[Au] flower house count down

讀音[?u] know row throw though

讀音[V] young country enough

讀音[u:] group you soup

17our讀音[O:] course your four

讀音[Au?] our hour ours

讀音[E:] journey

18ui jl r s [ju: i] fluid suicide tuition

讀音[u:] juice fruit suit

七、非重讀音節中元音字組和字群的讀音

元音字組或字群

1ai/ay ei/ey [i] Sunday foreign monkey

2ow [?u] yellow sparrow tomorrow

3、元音字組在非重讀音節中讀[?]音或[ i ].

neighbour serious famous biscuit coffee

4-sion -tion [Sn] impression nation

5-sion在元音字母后 [n] vision decision occasion

6-tions [tSn] question suggestion

7-sten [sn] listen

8-stle [sl] whistle castle

9-sure [Z?] pleasure measure

10-ture [tS?] picture culture

八、元字組在複合詞非重讀音節中的讀音

² 複合詞中的第二部分不標註重音符號,但其中的元音字母或元音字組仍按重讀音節拼讀規則拼讀. 例如:

everyday [ei] ,handbag [æ] ,blackboard [O:]

² 有些詞隨著語言的發展,前後兩部分已失去其單獨存在的意義,融合成為一個詞.其中的非重讀部分要按非重讀音節的讀音規則發音. 例如:

sun太陽 + day[ei]日子 > Sunday[i] 星期天

holy神聖 + day[ei]日子 > holiday[i] 假日

break中斷 + fast[A:]齋戒 > breakfast[?] 早餐

cup茶杯 + board木板[O:] > cupboard[?] 碗櫃

九、輔字組的讀音

輔字組

1、 b [b] bike bus bag

[ / ] bomb tomb

2、c [k] cake picture coat music

e前或在i/y[s] face decide cinema

3、ch [ t∫ ] much chick rich teacher

[k] school headache chemistry

[ ∫ ] machine

4-ck [k] cock pocket black knock

5d [d] doctor bread hand day

6-dge [dZ] bridge fridge

7dr- [dr] children driver drink

8-ds [dz] stands floods goods

9f [ f ] five four breakfast

10g [g] bag gardon go

e i/y[dZ] orange large German

11gh [ f ] cough enough

[ / ] light daughter high

12gu- -gue gu在非重讀音節中 [g] guess league dialogue

[gw] language anguish

13h [h] hot head house hand

[ / ] hour honest

14j [d ] jeep jar joke join July

15k [k] kind bike skate make week

16kn- [n] knife know knock

17l [ l ] life milk school tall

18m [m] monkey come autumn

19-mn [m] autumn column

20n [n] not shine ten note

[k]/ [g]音前 [?] uncle thank hungry

21-ng [?] morning young wrong

22p [p] paper plane pig ship pen

23ph [f] elephant photo telephone

24q [k] Iraq

25qu- [kw] quality quite

26r [r] red rubber ruler

27s在詞首或清輔音前 [s] sit sleep desk

元音字母間或濁輔音前 [z] music husband

28sc- [sk] scarlet school

[s] muscle science

29sh [ ∫ ] she fish shirt wash

30t在通常情況下 [t] ten letter meet

在弱讀字母ia ie io[ ∫ ] patient nation

31tch [ t∫ ] watch kitchen

32th在通常情況下[θ] thin thirty method

在冠詞 代詞 介詞 連詞中 [ð] the these with than

在詞尾-the -ther中 [ð] clothe father weather

33tr- [tr] tree train country truck

34ts [ts] sports parts

35v [v] very voice love leave

36w [w] week win wake sweet wait

[ / ] answer two

37wh- [w] what when white why

在字母o[h] who whose whole

38x 在重讀元音前 [ks] box text exercise

[gz] example exist exact

39wr- [r] write

40y- [ j ] yes yard yellow young

41z [z] puzzle zero zoo

² 重讀音節單詞中讀音特別響亮的音節.用音標標記雙音節,多音節詞的讀音時,應使用重讀符號.單音節詞多數是重讀音節,標記讀音時不需要使用重讀符號.

² 開音節 ①絕對開音節:單個元音字母后面沒有輔字組的重讀音節.例如:

no blue ba-by stu-dent se-cret.

②相對開音節:單個元音字母后面加單個輔音字母,再加一個不發音字母e構成的重讀音節.例如:name these bike home ex-cuse.

² 閉音節單個元音字母后面有輔字組(r w y 除外)且以輔字組結尾的重讀音節.例如: bag egg fish not cup

² 多音節詞重讀規則 多音節詞通常在倒數第三個音節重讀. 例如: el-e-phant con-grat-u- la-tion

n 詞尾有-ic-tion,-sion的詞,在-ic-sion,-tion前的一個音節上重讀.例如: scien `tific im`pression `nation

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