發音與拼寫的相對應(國際音標註音)

2019-02-23 19:19:40

發音與拼寫的相對應(國際音標註音)

發音與拼寫的相對應(國際音標註音)

Sound to spelling correspondences

輔音 Consonants

IPA

spelling

example

/p/

p, pp, ph, pe, gh

pill, happy, Phuket, tape, hiccough

/b/

b, bb, bh, p (in some dialects)

bit, rabbit, Bhutan, thespian[citation needed]

/t/

t, tt, ed, pt, th, ct

ten, bitter, topped, pterodactyl, thyme, ctenoid

/d/

d, dd, ed, dh, th (in some dialects)

dive, ladder, failed, dharma, them

/g/

g, gg, gue, gh

go, stagger, catalogue, ghost

/k/

c, k, ck, ch, cc, qu, q, cq, cu, que, kk, kh

cat, key, tack, chord, account, liquor, Iraq, acquaint, biscuit, mosque, trekker, khan

/m/

m, mm, mb, mn, mh, gm, chm

mine, hammer, climb, hymn, mho, diaphragm, drachm

/n/

n, nn, kn, gn, pn, nh, cn, mn, ng (in some dialects)

nice, funny, knee, gnome, pneumonia, piranha, cnidarian, mnemonic, fighting

/?/

ng, n, ngue, ngh

sing, link, tongue, Singh

/r/

r, rr, wr, rh, rrh

ray, parrot, wrong, rhyme, diarrh(o)ea

/f/

f, ph, ff, gh, pph, u, th (in some dialects)

fine, physical, off, laugh, sapphire, lieutenant(Br), thin

/v/

v, vv, f, ph

vine, savvy, of, Stephen

/θ/

th, chth, phth, tth

thin, chthonic, phthisis, Matthew

/e/

th

them, breathe

/s/

s, c, ss, sc, st, ps, sch (in some dialects), cc, se, ce, z (in some dialects)

song, city, mess, scene, listen, psychology, schism, flaccid, horse, juice, citizen

/z/

s, z, x, zz, ss, ze, c (in some dialects)

has, zoo, xylophone, fuzz, scissors, breeze, electricity

/?/

sh, ti, ci, ssi, si, ss, ch, s, sci, ce, sch, sc

shin, nation, special, mission, expansion, tissue, machine, sugar, conscience, ocean, schmooze, crescendo

/?/

si, s, g, z, j, zh, ti, sh (in some dialects)

division, leisure, genre, seizure, jeté, Zhytomyr, equation, Pershing

/t?/

ch, t, tch, ti, c, cz, tsch

chin, nature, batch, bastion (some accents), cello, Czech, Deutschmark

/d?/

g, j, dg, dge, d, di, gi, ge, dj, gg

magic, jump, ledger, bridge, graduate, soldier, Belgian, dungeon, Djibouti, exaggerate

/h/

h, wh, j, ch

he, who, fajita, chutzpah

/j/

y, i, j, ll

yes, onion, hallelujah, tortilla

/l/

l, ll, lh

line, hallo, Lhasa

/?/

-ll, -l

ball, halt

/w/

w, u, o, ou, wh (in most dialects)

we, queen, choir, Ouija board, what

/hw/

wh (in some dialects)

wheel

元音 Vowels

IPA

spelling

example

/i/

e, ea, ee, e…e, ae, ei, i…e, ie, eo, oe, ie...e, ay, ey, i, y, oi, ue, ey

be, beach, bee, cede, Caesar, deceit, machine, field, people, amoeba, hygiene, quay, key, ski, city, chamois, Portuguese, geyser (Br)

/?/

i, y, ui, e, ee, ie, o, u, a, ei, ee, ia, ea, i...e, ai, ey, oe

bit, myth, build, pretty, been (some accents), sieve, women, busy, damage, counterfeit, carriage, mileage, medicine, bargain, Ceylon, oedema

/u/

oo, u, o, u…e, ou, ew, ue, o…e, ui, eu, oeu, oe, ough, wo, ioux, ieu, ault, oup, w

tool, luminous, who, flute, soup, jewel, true, lose, fruit, maneuver (US), manoeuvre (Br), canoe, through, two, Sioux, lieutenant(US), Sault Sainte Marie, coup, cwm

/?/

oo, u, o, oo...e, or, ou, oul

look, full, wolf, gooseberry, worsted, courier, should

/e/

a, a…e, ay, ai, ai...e, aig, aigh, ao, au, e (é), e...e, ea, ei, ei...e, eig, eigh, ee (ée), eh, et, ey, ez, er, ie, ae, eg

paper, rate, pay, rain, cocaine, arraign, straight, gaol(Br), gauge, ukulele (café), crepe, steak, veil, beige, reign, eight, matinee (soirée), eh, ballet, obey, chez, dossier, lingerie(US), reggae, thegn

/?/

a, e, o, u, ai, ou, eig, y, ah, ough, gh, ae, oi

another, anthem, awesome, atrium, mountain, callous, foreign, beryl, Messiah, borough(Br), Edinburgh, Michael, porpoise

/o/

o, o…e, oa, ow, ou, oe, oo, eau, oh, ew, au, aoh, ough, eo

so, bone, boat, know, soul, foe, brooch, beau, oh, sew, mauve, pharaoh, furlough, yeoman

/?/

e, ea, a, ae, ai, ay, ea…e, ei, eo, ie, ieu, u, ue, oe

met, weather, many, aesthetic, said, says, cleanse, heifer, jeopardy, friend, lieutenant(Br), bury, guess, foetid

/?/

a, ai, al, au, i

hand, plaid, salmon, laugh (some accents), meringue

/?/

u, o, o…e, oe, ou, oo, wo

sun, son, come, does, touch, flood, twopennce

/?/

a, au, aw, ough, augh, o, oa, oo, al, uo, u

fall, author, jaw, bought, caught, cord, broad, door, walk, fluorine(Br), sure(some accents)

/ɑ/

o, a, eau, ach, au, ou

lock, watch, bureaucracy, yacht, sausage, cough

/a?/

i…e, i, y, igh, ie, ei, eigh, uy, ai, ey, ye, eye, y…e, ae, ais, is, ig, ic, ay, ui

fine, Christ, try, high, tie, eidos, height, buy, aisle, geyser (US), dye, eye, type, maestro, aisle, isle, sign, indict, kayak, guide

/ɑr/

ar, a, er, ear, a…e, ua, aa, au, ou

car, father, sergeant, heart, are, guard, bazaar, aunt, our(some accents)

/?r/

er, ar, ere, are, aire, eir, air, aa, aer, ayr, ear

stationery (some accents), vary, where, ware, millionaire, heir, hair, Aaron, aerial, Ayr, bear

/??/

oi, oy, aw, uoy oy…e, eu

foil, toy, lawyer, buoy, gargoyle, Freudian

/a?/

ou, ow, ough, au, ao

out, now, bough, tau, Laos

/?r/

er, or, ur, ir, yr, our, ear, err, eur, yrrh, ar, oeu, olo, uer

fern, worst, turn, thirst, myrtle, journey, earth, err, amateur, myrrh, grammar, hors d'oeuvre, colonel, Guernsey

/ju/

u, u…e, eu, ue, iew, eau, ieu, ueue, ui, ewe, ew

music*, use, feud, cue, view, beautiful*, adieu*, queue, nuisance*, ewe, few, * in some dialects, see Yod dropping

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