國際音標和英語字母在書寫方面的聯繫 —從音標到字母和字母組合

2019-03-04 01:15:00
國際音標和英語字母在書寫方面的聯繫—從音標到字母和字母組合單元音: [i:]: ⑴e:he she me we⑵ea:tea eat meat⑶ee:see tree see ⑷ei:receive ⑸ey:key ⑹i:police policeman policewoman machine⑺eo:people⑻ie:piece field believe thief[?]: ⑴a:orange cabbage⑵ay:Sunday holiday⑶e:begin English pretty cinema ⑷ey:monkey ⑸i:it is in big⑹y:city very sorry⑺u:busy⑻ui:build building ⑼ai:captain[e]: ⑴a:any many anyone ⑵ai:said ⑶ay:says ⑷e:pen bed yes egg desk⑸ea:bread head breakfast⑹u:bury

[?]:a:bag am and at sad

[ɑ:]:⑴a:class banana father after⑵al:half palm⑶ar:car far park arm star⑷au:aunt laugh⑸ear:heart[^]: ⑴o: come none love other⑵oo:blood flood⑶ou:touch country enough young ⑷u:bus sun but cut up us[??]:⑴ear:learn earth early heard⑵er:her term ⑶ir:first girl bird skirt sir third⑷or:work word world⑸ur:nurse turn hurt Thursday⑹yr:myrtle ⑺our:journalist journal[?]:⑴a:along about banana Canana China⑵e:student open children different⑶i:holiday April⑷o:today welcome police⑸u:minus autumn⑹er:father mother brother sister⑺or:doctor forget mirror ⑻ar:sugar ⑼re:metre tired fire⑽ou:delicious previous⑾ur:surprise Saturday⑿our:colour ⒀ure:picture pleasure⒁oar:cupboard ⒂yr:martyr satyr[u:]:⑴ew:flew grew review Jew⑵o:do to who⑶oo:too zoo food pool boot school⑷ou:soup group through⑸u:blue glue June⑹ui:fruit juice⑺oe:shoe [?]:⑴o:woman wolf⑵oo:book look good foot⑶oul:could would should

⑷u:put sugar full push

[?]:⑴([w])a:want wash watch what⑵o:hot on not sorry⑶ou:cough

⑷au:Australia

[??]:⑴(w)a:water⑵al:all ball call fall hall mall small talk tall wall ⑶([w])ar:warm quarter⑷au:August autumn daughter⑸aw:draw saw law⑹oor:door floor⑺ore:more before ⑻or:or for short sport⑼ou:bought brought thought⑽our:four your⑾awe:awe awed aweless⑿oar:board blackboard cardboard⒀o:story雙元音:[a?]:⑴i:time like nice fine five⑵y:my by why⑶i(g):sign high light right ⑷ie:die lie tie[e?]:⑴a:name cake game face⑵ai:rain train wait⑶ay: day may okay play today⑷ei:veil vein⑸ei(gh):eight eighteen eighty⑹ey:they⑺ea:great break[??]:⑴e:zero cereal serious⑵ea:real really idea cereal⑶ere:here ⑷ear:ear dear hear near clear⑸eer:beer deer pioneer[??]:⑴o:go no nose home⑵ow:show know yellow window⑶oa:goat boat⑷ou:shoulder though ⑸oe:woe[??]:⑴ure:sure ⑵oor:poor ⑶our:tour[a?]:⑴ou:out about house blouse⑵ow:how now cow[e?]:⑴air:air hair chair⑵are:care hare parent⑶ear:pear wear bear⑷ere:there where⑸eir:their theirs⑹a:Mary[??]:⑴oi:oil toilet boil soil⑵oy:boy toy employee輔音:清輔成對輔音:[p]-[b] [t]-[d] [k]-[g] [f]-[v] [s]-[z] [θ]-[e] [?]-[?] [ts]-[dz] [t?]-[d?] [tr]-[dr] 清音濁化:清輔音[p] [t] [k] [tr]等在[s]後重讀時由送氣音變為不送氣音,即發其濁輔音[b] [d] [g] [dr],但音標仍寫成清輔音。如:sport[sp?:t],student['stju:d?nt], sky[ska?], street[str i:t]。但弱讀時[s]後的清輔音仍讀請輔音,不讀相對的濁輔音。如:hostess['h??st?s]。[p]:⑴p:pen map help cheap pencil paper⑵pp:apple happy appear[b]:⑴b:bag by bed boy bus blue⑵bb:rabbit cabbage[t]:⑴t:ten time not get table⑵tt:bottle bottom little pretty⑶ed:watched washed cooked helped danced[d]:⑴d:desk door day dog ⑵dd:add daddy middle⑶ed:played cleaned climbed answered arrived aired boiled emptied enjoyed cried[k]:⑴c:cat come cut clock cry picture bloc⑵cc: occasion according occupy acclaim ⑶ch:school Christmas chemistry technique technology stomach⑷k:book bike cake kite Kate look⑸ck:black duck clock jacket cock⑹q:Iraq coq ⑺que:unique technique[g]:⑴g:go girl big get⑵gg:egg bigger biggest⑶gu:guess⑷gue:dialogue ⑸gh:ghyll ghost[f]:⑴f:five fish fine family fifteen⑵ph:photo phone elephant photograph⑶gh:laugh enough⑷ff:off coffee[v]:⑴v:very five have⑵f:of[s]:⑴c:nice city cycle ⑵s:sit six some bus use us desk books⑶ss:miss class glass grass⑷sc:science scene⑸ps:psalm psywar[z]:⑴s:is his please music lose husband apples⑵es:leaves thieves knives wives⑶z:zoo zero⑷zz:buzz[θ]:th:three thank month thin[e]:⑴th:this the with than ⑵the:breathe soythe[?]:⑴sh:she shoe short shop wash⑵s:sure Asia⑶c: special sufficient delicious⑷t:station national patient⑸ss:Russia profession⑹ch:machine[?]:⑴s:usually television pleasure⑵z:seizure⑶ge:garage[ts]:⑴ts:shirts hurts coats costs goats⑵t’s:Let’s⑶tes:kites gates dates⑷zz:pizza[dz]:⑴ds:beds birds hands friends⑵des:decides[t?]:⑴ch:chair much lunch China⑵tch:watch⑶t: picture question[d?]:⑴g(e):age page huge orange⑵g:gentle gentleman general⑶dge:bridge porridge judge⑷j:jump jacket just June Jim⑸ch:sandwich[tr]:tr:tree trip try true truth[dr]:dr:dress drive hundred children 單個輔音:[h]:⑴h:he her have hand head hair⑵(w)h:who whom whose[l]:⑴l:let look please lake people⑵ll:tell full till bell⑶(t)l(e):whistle[r]:⑴r:red right three⑵rr:sorry worry hurry carry carrot⑶(w)r:write wrong[m]:⑴m:man meat meet time⑵mm:common communicate⑶m(b):climb lamb⑷m(n):autumn [n]:⑴n:name nice nine near under⑵(k)n:know knife⑶nn:Ann⑷(m)n:mnemonics[?]:⑴ng:sing long young morning⑵n(k):thank think ink pink⑶n(g):English[w]:⑴w:we window work walk⑵w(h):what why where white[j]:⑴y:yes you year yellow⑵j:Jensen ja hallelujah jaap⑶i:onion review million billion brilliant behaviour⑷e:Europe 國際音標和英語字母在讀音方面的聯繫 —從字母和字母組合到音標Ⅰ.元音字母a及a+其他字母的讀音a在重讀開音節中讀[e?]:name cake game face a在重讀閉音節中讀[?]:bag am and at sad a在輔音字母s,th,f,n,ph前讀[ɑ:]:class fast grasp ask father after dance grapha在[w]後讀[?]或[?:]:want what water[w?:t?]a在ny前讀[e]:any manya弱讀時讀[?]:along about banana Canana Chinaa在非重讀音節中讀[?]:orange cabbagea讀[e?]:Maryai讀[e?]:rain train waitai讀[?]:captain ai讀[e]:saiday讀[e?]:day may okay play todayay弱讀讀[?]:Sunday holidayay讀[e]:saysair讀[e?]:air hair chairal在多數輔音字母前讀[?:](f,m除外):all ball call fall hall mall small talk tall wallal還讀[?:l](特別當後面不是k,f,m時):also saltal在輔音字母f,m前讀[ɑ:]:half palmar在重讀音節中讀[ɑ:]::car far park arm starar在[w]後讀[?:]:warm quarterar弱讀讀[?]:sugarare讀[e?]:care hare parentass在重讀音節中讀[ɑ:s]:class glass grass passau在重讀音節中讀[?:]:August autumn daughterau讀[?]:Australiaau還讀作[ɑ:]:aunt laughaw在重讀音節中讀[?:]:draw saw lawawe讀[?:]:awe awed awelessⅡ. 元音字母e及e+其他字母的讀音e在重讀開音節中讀[i:]:he she me wee在重讀閉音節中讀[e]:pen bed yes egg deske在非重讀音節中讀[?]:begin English pretty cinemae弱讀讀[?]:student open children differente讀[??]:zero cereal seriouse讀[j]:Europeea在重讀音節中讀[i:]:tea eat meatea讀[e]:bread head breakfastea讀[e?]:great breakea讀[??]:real really idea cerealear讀[?:]:learn earth early heardear讀[e?]:pear wear bearear讀[??]:ear dear hear near clearear讀[ɑ:]:hearted在大部分清輔音後讀[t]([t]除外):watched washed cooked helped danceded在元音和濁輔音後讀[d]([d]除外):played cleaned climbed answered arrived aired boiled emptied enjoyed crieded在[t][d]後讀[?d]:wanted neededee在重讀音節中讀[i:]:see tree seeeer讀[??]:beer deer pioneerei讀[i:]:receiveei讀[e?]:veil veinei在gh前讀[e?]:eight eighteen eightyeir讀[e?]:their theirseo讀[i:]:peopleer在重讀閉音節中讀[?:]:her termer在非重讀音節中讀[?]:father mother brother sisterere讀[??]:hereere讀[e?]:there wherees在濁輔音([?][?][d?]除外)及元音後,es發[z]:leaves thieves knives wivespotatoes tomatoes heroes Negroes goes does families storieses在[s][z][?][?][t?][d?]後讀[?z]:buses blouses dishes garages watchesorangesew讀[ju:]:new newspaper reviewew在l,r,j後讀[u:]:flew grew Jewex讀[eks]:exercise exitex讀[?ks]:excle expensive extinctex讀[?gz]:exam examination exactlyey讀[i:]:keyey讀[?]:monkey valleyey讀[e?]:theyⅢ. 元音字母i及i+其他字母的讀音i在重讀開音節中讀[a?]:time like ricei在重讀閉音節中讀[?]:big six siti讀[i:]:police policeman policewoman machinei弱讀讀[?]:holiday Aprili在非重讀音節中讀[?]:taxii讀[j]:onion review million billion brilliant behaviouri在元音字母a,e,o前讀[a?]:dialogue quiet pioneeri在g前讀[a?]:sign high light righti在nd前讀[a?]:find behindi在ld前讀[a?]:childi在re前讀[a?]:fire tired retire ie在重讀音節中輔音字母前讀[i:]:piece field believe thiefie在重讀音節詞詞尾讀[a?]:lie dieir在重讀音節中讀[?:]:bird girl firstⅣ.元音字母o及o+其他字母的讀音o在重讀開音節中讀[??]:go no nose homeo在輔音字母st,ld前讀[??]:post oldo在重讀閉音節中讀[?]:hot on not sorryo讀[?:]:storyo在輔音字母m,n,v和th前讀[^]:come none love othero讀[u:]:do to whoo在w後讀[?]:woman wolfo在非重讀音節中讀[?]:today policemanoa在重讀音節中讀[??]:boat coatoar讀[?:]:board blackboard cardboardoar讀[?]:cupboardoe讀[??]:woeoe讀[u:]:shoeoi讀[??]:oil toilet boil soiloo一般讀[u:]:too zoo food pool boot schooloo在d,k和少數t前讀[?]:book look good footoo讀[^]:blood floodoor讀[?:]:door flooroor讀[??]:pooror在重讀音節中讀[?:]:or for short sportor在[w]後讀[?:]:work word worldor讀[?]:doctor forget mirrorore讀[?:]:more beforeou在多數情況下讀[a?]:out about house blouseou在ght前讀[?:]:bought brought thoughtou讀[^]:touch country enough youngou讀[u:]:soup group throughou讀[??]:shoulder thoughou讀[?]:coughou讀[?]:delicious previousoul讀[?]:could would shouldour讀[?:]:four yourour讀[?:]:journalist journalour讀[?]:colourour讀[??]:tourour讀[a??]:our hourow讀[a?]:how now cowow讀[??]:show know yellow windowowe或ower讀[a??]:towel floweroy讀[??]:boy toy employeeⅤ. 元音字母u及u+其他字母的讀音u在重讀開音節中讀[ju:]:student Tuesdayu在重讀閉音節中讀[^]:bus sun but cut up usu處於開音節位置,又在輔音字母j,l,r,s後讀[u:]:June fluency February Sueu在重讀閉音節中還讀[?]:put sugar full pushu在非重讀音節中讀[?]:minus autumnu讀[?]:busy minuteu讀[e]:buryui讀[ju:]或[j??,ju:?]:suit suicide l,r,j+ui時,ui讀作[u:]或[??,u:?]:sluise fruit juice fluid ruin ui讀[?]:build buildingur在重讀音節中讀[?:]:nurse turn hurt Thursdayur讀[?]:surprise Saturdayure讀[??]:sureure在非重讀音節中讀[?]:picture pleasureure在重讀音節中讀[j??]:cureⅥ.21個輔音字母及輔音字母組合的讀音b讀[b]:bag by bed boy bus bluebt,mb在詞尾時,b不發音:debt climb combbb讀[b]:rabbit cabbagec在字母e,i,y前讀[s]:nice city cyclec在字母a,o,u,l,r,t前或在音節末尾讀[k]:cat come cut clock cry picture blocc+ia,ie,io時,c讀[?]:special sufficient deliciouscc+a,o,u或l時,cc讀[k]:occasion according occupy acclaimcc+e,i時,cc讀[ks]:accept accidentch讀[t?]:chair much lunch Chinach讀[k]:school Christmas chemistry technique technology stomachch讀[?]:machinech讀[d?]:sandwichck讀[k]:black duck clock jacket cockd讀[d]:desk door day dogdd讀[d]:add daddy middledge讀[d?]:bridge porridge judgedr讀[dr]:dress drive hundred childrends讀[dz]:beds birds hands friendsdes讀[dz]:decidesf讀[f]:five fish fine family fifteenf讀[v]:offf讀[f]:off coffeeften讀[f?n]:ofteng讀[g]:go girl big getg在e前讀[d?]:age page huge orangeg讀[d?]:gentle gentleman generalgg讀[g]:egg bigger biggestge讀[?]:garagegh在i,ei,ai,ou,au後不發音:right eight straight bought daughtergh讀[f]:laugh enoughgh在詞首時,讀[g]:ghyll ghostgn,gm在詞尾時,g常無聲:sign phlegmgu在詞首讀[g]:guessgu在詞中讀[gw]:languagegue在詞尾讀[g]:dialogueh讀[h]:he her have hand head hairh不發音:hourwh讀[w]:what why where whitewh在o前讀[h]:who whom whosegh在詞首時,h不發音:ghyll ghostj讀[d?]:jump jacket just June Jimj讀[j]:Jensen ja hallelujah jaapk讀[k]:book bike cake kite Kate lookkn在詞首時,k不發音:know knifel讀[l]:let look please lake peoplell讀[l]:tell full till bellm讀[m]:man meat meet timemb在詞尾時,讀[m],b常無聲:climb combmm讀[m]:common mn在詞首讀[n]:mnemonicsmn在詞中時,讀[mn]:columnistmn在詞尾時,n常無聲:autumn columnn讀[n]:name nice nine near undern在[k][g]前讀[?]:pink Englishn在k後讀[n]:know knifen在m後讀[n]:mnemonicsnn讀[n]:Annng在詞尾讀[?]:sing long young morningng在詞中讀[?g]:English fingernk讀[?k]:thank think ink pinkp讀[p]:pen map help cheap pencil paperpp讀[p]:apple happy appearph讀[f]:photo phone elephant photographps在詞首時,p常不發音:psalm psywarq讀[k]:Iraq coqqu在詞首讀[kw]:queen quickque在詞尾讀[k]:unique techniquer讀[r]:red right threerr讀[r]:sorry worry hurry carry carrotwr讀[r]:write wrongs在詞首讀[s]:sit six somes在清輔音後讀[s]:books likess在濁輔音和元音後讀[z]:apples windowss讀[z](尤其是在兩個元音字母之間):his is please music元音字母+s+無音e:①n.,adj.讀[s]:base use ②v.讀[z]:lose use詞中的s,其後跟清輔音字母時,s讀[s],其後跟濁輔音字母時,s讀[z]:desk husbands讀[?]:sure Asias讀[?]:usually television pleasuresion讀[??n]:television decisionsten讀[s?n]:listenstle讀[stl]:whistlesure讀[??]:pleasuresc+i,e,y讀[s]:science scene scythesc+a,o,u讀[sk]:scarf score scudss讀[s]:miss class glass grassss讀[?]:Russia professionssion讀[??n]:expressionsh讀[?]:she shoe short shop washt讀[t]:ten time not get tablet讀[t?]:picture questiontch讀[t?]:watcht+ia,ie時,t讀[?]:martial patientsten,ften,stle中,t無聲:listen often whistletes讀[ts]:kites gates datestt讀[t]:bottle bottom little prettytion讀[??n]:station national patient[s]+tion時讀[t??n]:questionth讀[θ]:three thank month thinth在pron.,art.,prep.,conj.中讀[e]:this the with than詞尾the讀[e]:breathe soythe詞尾ther讀[e?]:father mother brother sistertr讀[tr]:tree trip try true truthts讀[ts]:shirts hurts coats costs goatst’s讀[ts]:Let’sture讀[t??]:picture v讀[v]:very five havew讀[w]:we window work walkw不發音:twowh讀[w]:what why where whitewh在o前讀[h]:who whom whosewr在詞首讀[r],w無聲:write wrongx讀[ks]:box six excuse nextx讀[gz]:exam exact exampley在重讀開音節中讀[a?]:my by whyy在重讀閉音節中讀[?]:city very sorryy在詞首讀[j]:yes you year yellowyr讀[?:]:myrtleyr讀[a??]:martyr satyryre讀[?]:tyre byrez讀[z]:zoo zeroz讀[?]:seizurezz讀[z]:buzzzz讀[ts]:pizza
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