26個英文字母及發音音標

2019-02-15 12:17:23

26個英文字母及發音音標如下:

Aa [e?]

Bb [bi:]

Cc [si:]

Dd [di:]

Ee [i:]

Ff [ef]

Gg [d i:]

Hh [e?t∫]

I i [ɑ?]

J j [d e?]

K k [ke?]

L l [el]

Mm [em]

N n [en]

O o [?u]

P p [pi:]

Q q [kju:]

R r [ɑ:]

S s [es]

T t [ti:]

U u [ju:]

V v [vi:]

W w [′dΛblju:]

X x [eks]

Y y [wai]

Z z [zi:]/[zed]

以上我們可以看出,英語字母中有一些含有共同的元音音素.:

1)含元音音素[ei] 字母: Aa Hh Jj Kk
音標: [e?] [e?t∫] [d e?] [ke?]

2) 含元音音素[i:]字母: Bb Cc Dd Ee GgPpTt Vv

音標: [bi:] [si:][di:] [i:] [di:] [pi:] [ti:] [vi:]

3) 含元音音素[e] 字母: Ff Ll Mm NnSs Xx Zz

音標:[ef] [el] [em] [en] [es] [eks][zed]

4) 含元音音素[ju:] 字母: Uu QqWw

音標: [ju:] [kju:][`dΛblju:]

5) 含元音音素[ɑ?] 字母: Ii 音標: [ɑ?] Yy 音標: [wɑ?]
,元音字母在重讀音節中的讀音

a 在開音節中讀[e?] 如:name plane Jane baby cake
在閉音節中 [æ] 如:bag dad hat map black back

e 在開音節中 [i:] he thesemeChinese
在閉音節中 [e] bedletpendesk yesegg

i 在開音節中 [ɑ?] bikedrive time nice kite
在閉音節中 [?]fishbigdrinksit milkswim

o 在開音節中 [?u] those closegohome no
在閉音節中 [D]clock not boxshop sock

u 在開音節中 [ju:] student excuseduty Tuesday
在閉音節中 [Λ]bus cup jump muchlunch

在開音節中,元音字母u在輔音字母j, l ,r ,s後面時讀[u:]音,

例如:June blue ruler super

,元音字母在非重讀音節中的讀音

a [?] Chinaanother woman breakfast
[ ?] orange comrade village cabbage

e [?] hundred student open weekend
[?] chicken pocket begin children

i [?]/[?] holiday beautiful family animal
[a?]exercise satellite

o [?] secondtonightsomebodywelcome
[?u] also zero photo

u [?] autumn diffcult
[ju:] popular congratulationJanuary

動詞中的a如果處在開音節位置,a讀[e?]音,例如:operate

u處在開音節位置,又在輔音字母j、 l、 r、 s後面時,讀[u(:)]音,

例如:July influence February issue

,元音字母在重讀音節中的特殊讀音

1、a在[w]音後面 [?] wantwhatwatchwashquality
a在f、n、 sk 、ph 、sp 、ss 、st 、th前時讀 [ɑ:] after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father

2、i在-nd、 -ld和gh前 讀[ɑ?] 如: find child light high

3、o在-st、 -ld前讀[?u] 如: most postcard old cold

4、o在m、 n 、v 、th前 讀[Λ] come monkeylove mother

,-r音節元音字組在重讀音節中的讀音?з?

1、ar 一般讀[ɑ:] car farmdark sharp
在[w]後讀[?:] warm quarter towards

2、or [?:] 如: forty morning short
or在[w]音後面 讀 [з:] word worker worse

3、er、 ir、 ur讀 [з:] 如: certainlybirdThursday

輔音字母r雙寫時,前面的元音字母不能與r構成 -r音節,而是按重讀閉音節的 拼讀規則發音.例如:carry sorry hurry

-r音節在非重讀音節中通常讀[?]音,例如:dollarteacher martyrforget Saturday

,-re音節元音字組在重讀音節中的讀音

are [e?] care dare hare

ere [??] here mere

ire [ɑ??] firehire wire

ore [?:] morescorebeforeshore bore

ure [ju:?] purecure

are ere ire ore很少出現在非重讀音節中,ure在非重讀音節中讀[?]音,例如:picture pleasure

重讀元音字母加r,再加非重讀元字組時,重讀元音字母應按-re拼讀,字母r讀[r].如:parent zero story during inspiring
某些常用詞及多音節詞經常出現長音短化現象.

例如:orange very American paragraph

,元音字組在重讀音節中的讀音

ai/ay讀音[e?] 例 詞 afraid rain wait day play

air[e?] air hair chair pair repair

al在f,m前讀 [?:l] small ball talk wall all

[?:l] always also saltalmost bald

[ɑ:] half calm palm

au/aw[?:] autumn daughter draw

ea [i:] teach easy cheap please

[e] heavy breadsweater weather

[e?]break great

ear [??] hear dear near clearyear

[e?]bear pear wear

[з:] earth learn early

ee[i:] jeep week green three

eer [??]]pioneer deer beer

ei/ey [e?] eight neighbourthey

[i:]either key

eu/ewjlrs後讀 [ju:] new few newspaper

[u:] flew brew

ie/ei[s]音之後[i:] piece field receive

oa [?u] coat Joan boatgoal

oar/oor [?:] roar board door floor

oi/oy [??] noise point boy toilet

oo [u:] broomfood tooth school

[u] booklook cook foot good

ou/ow [ɑu] flowerhouse count down

[?u] know row throw though

[Λ] young country enough

[u:] group you soup

our [?:] course your four

[ɑu?] our hour ours

[з:] journey

ui jl r s

[ju: ?] fluid suicide tuition [u:] juice fruit suit

,非重讀音節中元音字組和字群的讀音

ai/ay ei/ey [?] Sunday foreign monkey
ow [?u] yellow sparrow tomorrow
元音字組在非重讀音節中讀[?]音或 [?].
例如:neighbourserious famous biscuitcoffee
-sion -tion [∫n] impression nation
-sion在元音字母后 [n] vision decisionoccasion
-tions [tn] question suggestion
-sten [sn] listen
-stle [sl] whistlecastle
-sure ?] pleasuremeasure
-ture [t∫?] picture culture
,元字組在複合詞非重讀音節中的讀音
複合詞第二部分不標註重音符號,其中元音字母或元音字組仍按重讀音讀如:everyday [e?] handbag [æ]blackboard [?:]
有些詞隨著語言的發展,前後兩部分已失去其單獨存在的意義,融合成為一個詞.其中的非重讀部分要按非重讀音節的讀音規則發音. 例如:
sun太陽 + day[e?]日子 > Sunday[?] 星期天
holy神聖 + day[e?]日子 > holiday[?] 假日
break中斷 + fast[ɑ:]齋戒 > breakfast[?]早餐
cup茶杯 + board木板[?:] > cupboard[?] 碗櫃
,輔字組的讀音
b [b] bike bus bag
[/] bombtomb
c [k] cakepicture coat music
e前或在i/y[s]face decide cinema
ch [t∫] much chick rich teacher
[k] school headachechemistry

[∫]machine

-ck [k] cock pocket black knock

d [d] doctorbread handday

-dge [d ] bridge fridge
dr- [dr]children driverdrink

-ds [dz]stands floodsgoods
f[f] five four breakfast

g [g] bag gardon go

e i/y[d ] orange large German

gh [f] cough enough
[/]light daughter high

gu- -gue gu在非重讀音節中 [g] guess league dialogue
[gw] languageanguish
h [h] hot headhousehand
[/] hour honest

j [d ]jeep jar joke join July
k [k] kind bike skate make week

kn- [n]knife know knock

l [l] life milk school tall

m [m] monkeycome autumn

-mn [m] autumn column

n [n] not shine ten note

[k]/ [g]音前 [?] uncle thank hungry
-ng [?] morning young wrong

p [p] paper planepig ship pen
ph[f] elephantphoto telephone
q[k] Iraq
qu-[kw] quality quite
r[r] red rubber ruler
s在詞首或清輔音前 [s] sit sleep desk
元音字母間或濁輔音前 [z] music husband
sc- [sk] scarlet school

[s] muscle science
sh[∫] she fish shirt wash

t在通常情況下 [t] ten letter meet
在弱讀字母ia ie io[∫] patient nation
tch[t∫] watch kitchen
th在通常情況下[θ] thin thirtymethod
在冠詞 代詞 介詞 連詞中 [ð]the these with than
在詞尾-the -ther中 [ð] clothe father weather
tr- [tr] tree train country truck

ts [ts]sports parts
v [v] very voice love leave
w [w] week win wake sweet wait
[/] answer two
wh- wh-在字母o[w] what when white why
[h] who whose whole
x 在重讀元音前 [ks] box text exercise
[gz] examle exist exact
wr- [r]write
y- [j] yes yard yellow young
z[z] puzzlezero zoo
重讀音節單詞中讀音特別響亮的音節.用音標標記雙音節,多音節詞的讀音時,應使用重讀符號.單音節詞多數是重讀音節,標記讀音時不需要使用重讀符號.
開音節①絕對開音節:單個元音字母后面沒有輔字組的重讀音節.例如:no blue ba-by stu-dentse-cret.
②相對開音節:單個元音字母后面加單個輔音字母,再加一個不發音字母e構成的重讀音節.例如:name these bike homeex-cuse.

閉音節單個元音字母后面有輔字組(r w y 除外)且以輔字組結尾的重讀音節.例如: bag egg fish notcup

多音節詞重讀規則 多音節詞通常在倒數第三個音節重讀.例如: el-e-phantcon-grat-u- la-tion
詞尾有-ic-tion,-sion的詞,在-ic-sion,-tion前的一個音節上重讀.例如: scien `tific im`pression`nation

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