英語語法乾貨:動詞的時態要記牢,現在過去與將來

2019-02-12 21:24:53

在英語中,不同時間裡以不同方式發生的動作或存在的狀態,要用不同的動詞形式來表示,動詞的這種不同形式稱為動詞的時態。

時態從時間上劃分,可分為四大類:現在時;過去時;將來時;過去將來時。從行為上,每一類可以分為四種形式:一般式;進行式;完成式;完成進行式。這樣英語的動詞合起來,總共有十六種時態,國中只需掌握其中的八種時態。

一、一般現在時

(1)一般現在時表示現在的狀態、習慣性的動作或主語所具備的性格和能力等。

① 當動詞是be時,第一人稱用am,第二人稱用is,其他人稱用are.

② 當動詞是實義動詞時,一般用動詞原形,但如果主語是第三人稱單數時,動詞必須用第三人稱單數形式,其變化規則如下:

助動詞do(第三人稱單數用does)構成否定句、疑問句及答語,但要注意助動詞後原來的謂語動詞要恢復原形。例如:

I like music. I don’t like music.

Do you like music? Yes, I do No, I don’t

(2)一般現在時的用法

① 表示經常、習慣性動作,常和often, usually, every day, sometimes, always等時間狀語連用。如:

He goes to school by bus every day.

They often play football

② 表示能力、職業、特徵。如:

Miss Gao teaches English.

Do you speak Japanese?

③ 表示客觀存在。如:

The earth moves round the sun.

Time and tide wait for no man.

④ 表示已經安排好或計畫好的事。如

The plane takes off at 7:30.

Classes begin at 8:00

⑤ 在時間狀語和條件狀語從句中,主句用一般將來時,從句用一般現在時。如:

If I see him, I’ll tell him to give you a call.

We’ll wait until he comes back.

注意:

a. 一般現在時的一些常見的時間狀語有:always, often, usually, sometimes, seldom, ever, never, every day, now and then, from time to time

b. 現在進行時有時用來代替一般現在時,表示一個經常性的重複的動作或狀態。這時句中常帶always, forever以表示說話人的某種感情,如讚嘆、厭煩等。如:

He is always thinking of others.

He is always talking big.

二、一般過去時

(1)一般過去時表示過去某一時間所發生的動作或存在的狀態。

① 當動詞為be動詞時,應該用相應的過去式:

am is ---- was are ---- were

否定形式為:was not ---- wasn’t were not ---- weren’t

疑問句是將was, were 置於主語之前。

I was in Grade Three last term.

I wasn’t in Grade Two last term.

Which grade were you in?

② 當動詞為實義動詞時,用動詞的過去式,過去式的變化有規則和不規則變化。規則變化如下:

動詞過去式的不規則變化需要逐個記憶。見初三教材後的不規則動詞變化形式表。

go ---- went begin ---- began sleep ---- slept run ---- ran

I heard the good news just now.

The twins didn’t go to school last week

Did you see the film yesterday ?

(2)一般過去時的用法

① 表示過去某一時間或一段時間發生的動作或存在的狀態。常和表示過去的狀語連用:yesterday, last week, a minute ago, in 1998, just now, in those days等。例如:

They had a baby last month.

My mother was ill yesterday.

He went out just now.

② 用於since引導的從句,主句的謂語動詞如果用現在完成時,since引導的從句一般要用一般過去時。如:

He has worked in the factory since it opened in 1990.

You haven’t changed much since we last met.

注意:

a. 表示過去的時間狀語常見的有:yesterday, last night(week, year, month, Sunday), then, at that time, just now, a few days(weeks, months) ago.以及由after, before, when, while引導的的表示過去的時間狀語。

b. 一般過去時可以用來表示現在的時間, 這主要用於日常會話,使用的語氣較為婉轉客氣。如:

I wanted to ask if I could borrow your bike.

三、一般將來時

一般將來時

(1)一般將來時表示將要發生的動作或存在的狀態。常與表示將來的時間狀語連用:tomorrow, next week, next month, in a few days, from now on。如

I’m going to visit the museum this Sunday.

I’ll be there in half an hour.

We’ll arrive tomorrow.

(2)一般將來時的構成

① be going to + 動詞原形。Be隨主語人稱和數的變化而變化,否定句在be後面加not, 疑問句是將be放到主語之後。例如:

It’s going to be fine tomorrow.

He isn’t going to speak at the meeting.

What are you going to do next?

② will +動詞原形。Will可以和各種人稱及數的主語連用。否定句在will後加not,縮寫成won’t,疑問句需將will提至主語之前。例如:

We will have a basketball match next week.

Will you come to the party?

I son’t lend it to you.

③ shall + 動詞原形。此結構常用於主語為第人稱I / we的句中,疑問句表示提建議或徵求意見。如:

When and where shall we meet ?

Shall I turn on the TV ?

(3) 一般將來時的基本用法。

① “be going to +動詞原形”表示“意圖”,即打算、計畫要做某事。如:

Are you going to post the letter ?

How long is he going to stay here ?

② “be going to + 動詞原形”還可以表示“預見”,即現在已有跡象表明將要發生的事。如:

There are a lot of clouds. It’s going to rain.

It’s 7:50. I’m going to be late.

③ “will + 動詞原形”表示客觀上要發生的事或表示“帶意願色彩的將來”。如:

He will help you if you ask him.

They will come back tomorrow.

四、過去將來時

過去將來時表示在過去將來的某一時間發生的動作或存在的狀態。常用於賓語從句中。其結構與一般將來時類似,只需將助動詞改為過去式。

am/ is/ are going to + 動詞原形→was/ were going to + 動詞原形

will + 動詞原形→ would + 動詞原形

should + 動詞原形 → should + 動詞原形

例如:

You knew I would come.

He asked me when he would see me again.

Jim said he was going to see his friend the next day.

五、現在進行時

(1)現在進行時表示現在或現階段正在發生或進行的動作。它是由“be + 動詞的現在分詞”構成。其否定句是在be之後加not。疑問句則將be提到主語之前。

(2) 現在分詞的構成

(3)現在進行時的用法。

① 表示說話時正在進行的動作。如:

What are you doing ? Who are you waiting for ?

I’m cooking

② 表示現階段一直在進行的動作,但說話時不一定在進行。如:

He is working in a factory. She is translating look now.

③ 表示不斷重複的動作。如:

The boy is always asking some strange questions.

The children are singing and dancing.

④ 表示位置移動的動詞,可以用現在進行時表示將要發生的事。如go, come, leave, fly, start等。如:

When are you starting ? I’m leaving tomorrow.

六、過去進行時

過去進行時表示過去某一時刻正在進行的動作。

過去進行時常和表示過去的時間狀語連用。如:this time yesterday, at that time, then, last night, at 9:00 yesterday, all night等。其構成和現在進行時類似,只需將be變為相應的過去式:was/ were + 動詞-ing。如:

What were you doing this time yesterday ?

When I was watering the garden, it began to rain.

I was watching TV.

I was writing while my mother was cooking.

教學難點:

① 過去進行時表示一個過去的動作發生時或發生之後,另一個過去的動作正在進行。過去進行時也可用來表示過去一段時間內持續發生的動作。如:

When I was watering the garden, it began to rain.

當我在花園澆水時,突然下雨了。

While we were having a party, the lights went out.

② 過去進行時還可以表示兩個過去的動作同時進行,這時可用連線詞while引導。如:

George was reading while his wife was listening to the radio.

③ “was going + 不定式”表示過去打算。如

He was going to be our team leader. 他原打算當我們的領隊。

④ 過去進行時與一般過去的區別

過去進行時表示在過去一段時間正在進行的動作,而一般過去時表示一個完成的動作。如:

I was typing letters last night.

I typed some letters last night.

七、現在完成時

(1)現在完成時表示某個動作發生在過去,但對現在有影響(或結果),這個動作或狀態可能已經結束,也可能還要持續下去。

其構成形式是: have/ has + 動詞過去分詞

否定句在have/ has 後加not→haven’t/ hasn’t

疑問句要將have/ has放到主語之前。

(2)現在完成時的用法。

① 表示過去發生的動作對現在造成的影響和結果。常用的時間狀語有:already, yet, ever, never, just等。如:

I have already finished the work.

Have you ever been to Beijing?

He has never seen such a nice car.

② 表示過去已經開始,持續到現在的動作或狀態。往往和表示一段時間的狀語連用。如:

for + 時間段;

since + 時間點(表時間段);時間段+ago;一般過去時態。如:

I have taught in this school for ten years.

I have taught in this school since ten years ago.

③ for和since引導的短語都表示“一段時間”,所以謂語動詞應該用延續性動詞,不能用非延續性動詞。延續性動詞表示該動詞可以延續一段時間,如:live, work, study, teach, stay等,非延續性動詞是指該動詞所表示的動作不能持續,是短暫的、瞬間完成的,如:borrow, come, arrive, get, leave, die等。

許多非延續性動詞可以用意思相同或相近的延續性動詞來表示:

leave ---- be away from arrive ---- be in

go ---- be away come ---- be in / at finish ---- be over

buy ---- have borrow ---- keep die ---- be dead

join ---- be in/be a member of begin ---- be on

如:He has gone He has been away for an hour

I have bought a watch I have had the watch for several days

④ have/ has been to 和 have/ has gone to

have/ has been to :曾去過

have/ has gone to :已去,去了(不在說話現場,在途中或已經到達)

My mother has been to America. 我媽媽曾經去過美國

My mother has gone to America. 我媽媽已經去了美國

(3)現在完成時與一般過去時的用法比較

① 一般過去時只單純表示過去,和現在不發生聯繫,它可以和確定的表示過去的時間狀語連用。而現在完成時表示某一完成的動作對現在造成的影響或結果,強調的是現在的情況,所以不能和確定的過去的時間狀語連用。如:

We have visited the farm(現在對農場有所了解)

We visited the farm last week(說明上周參觀農場這件事)

② 如果詢問某事發生的時間、地點只能用一般過去時。如:

When did you lose your cat ?

I lost it last night. I found it in the garden.

現在完成時難點:

① 由since引導的時間狀語,它們的主句通常使用完成時態。

He has taught English since 1970.

It has been a long time since I last saw you.

② 只有在It is …since…這種結構中,主句的謂語才可用一般現在時,現在完成時或一般過去時。如:

It’s ten years since I left school.

It’s a long time since I saw you last.

③ 表示短暫性的動詞不能與表示一段時間的狀語連用,這類動詞有:

begin, borrow, buy, close, come, die, fall, find, finish,

join, kill, lend, leave, sell, start, stop等,如:

不能說:His father has died for three years.

只能說:His father died three years ago.

不能說:He has left home for two months.

只能說:He left home two months ago.

④ 非延續性動詞的否定形式可以表示狀態的延續。可與for, since時間狀語連用。如:

I haven’t seen him for a long time.

I haven’t heard from him since he left.

She hasn’t left home ever since she lost her job.

⑤ have(has) been 和have (has) gone的區別。

Have been to a place意思是“到過、去過”,表示曾到過某處,但現在人不在那兒;have gone to意思是“去了”,表示已經去了某地,現在人可能在去的途中或已在那兒。如:

Has she ever been to Nanjing ?

You have never been there before, have you?

I have been to Guilin, I went there last year.

總之,have been to講的是過去的情況,強調去過或沒有,著重於到目前為止的一個結果,而have gone to指現在人在不在,只用於第三人稱,不用於第一、第二人稱,不能用來代替have been to.

八、過去完成時

(1)過去完成時表示在過去某一時間之前已經發生的動作或存在的狀態。其結構是:had + 動詞過去分詞。否定、疑問句同現在完成時一樣。

(2)用法

① 表示在過去某一時間或動作之前已經發生或完成的動作,即“過去的過去”。如:

The meeting had begun when we got there.

He said he had seen the film.

② 表示某一動作在過去某一時間已經開始,一直延續到過去的另一時間,常與for或since引導的時間狀語連用。如:

The film had been on for tem minutes when we got there.

She said that she had made much progress since she came here.

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