英語音標發音規則表(一)

2019-02-17 00:53:20

英語音標發音規則表

一、元音字母重讀音節中的讀音

元音字母

a

在開音節中

[ei]

name plane Jane baby cake

在閉音節中

[?]

bag dad hat map black back

e

在開音節中

[i:]

he these me Chinese

在閉音節中

[e]

bed let pen desk yes egg

i

在開音節中

[ai]

bike fly drive time nice kite

在閉音節中

[i]

fish big drink sit milk swim

o

在開音節中

[ou]

those close go hoe home no

在閉音節中

[]

clock not box shop sock

u

在開音節中

[ju:]

student excuse duty Tuesday

在閉音節中

[]

bus cup jump much lunch

開音節中,元音字母u輔音字母j l r s後面時讀[u:]音,例如:June blue ruler super

二、元音字母在非重讀音節中的讀音

元音字母

a

[]

Chinaanother woman breakfast

[i]

orange comrade village cabbage

e

[]

hundred student open weekend

[i]

chicken pocket begin children

i

[]/[i]

holiday beautiful family animal

[ai]

exercise satellite

o

[]

second tonight somebody welcome

[u]

also zero photo

u

[]

autumn diffcult

[ju:]

popular congratulation January

1 動詞中的a如果處在開音節位置,a[ei]音,例如:operate 2 u處在開音節位置,

又在輔音字母j l r s後面時,讀[u(:)]音,例如:July influence February issue

在非重讀音節中,許多單詞中的元音字母a e i 即可以讀作[]音,也可以讀作[i]音。

三、元音字母重讀音節中的特殊讀音

元音字母

a在[w]音後面

[]

want what watch wash quality

a在f n sk ph sp ss st th

[α:]

after plant graph ask grasp glass fast father

i在-nd -ld和gh

[ai]

find child light high

o在-st -ld

[ou]

most postcard old cold

o在m n v th

[]

come monkey love mother

四、-r音節元音字組重讀音節中的讀音

元音字組

ar
ar
[w]音後面

[α:]

car farm dark sharpener

[:]

warm quarter towards

or
or
[w]音後面

[:]

forty morning short

[:]

word worker worse

er ir ur

[:]

certainly bird Thursday

輔音字母r雙寫時,前面的元音字母不能與r構成-r音節,而是按重讀閉音節的拼讀規則發音。例如: carry sorry hurry

-r音節在非重讀音節中通常讀[]音,例如:dollar teacher martyr forget Saturday

五、-re音節元音字組重讀音節中的讀音

元音字組

are

[ε]

care dare hare

ere

[i]

here mere

ire

[ai]

fire hire wire

ore

[:]

more score before

ure

[ju]

pure cure

are ere ire ore很少出現在非重讀音節中,ure在非重讀音節中讀[]音,例如:picture pleasure

重讀元音字母Rr,再加非重讀元字組時,重讀元音字母應按-re音節拼讀規則拼讀,字母Rr[r]音。例如:parent zero story during inspiring

某些常用詞及多音節詞經常出現長音短化現象。例如:orange very American paragraph

六、元音字組重讀音節中的讀音

元音字組

ai/ay

[ei]

afraid rain wait day play

air

[ε]

air hair chair pair repair

al

al在f m前

[]

small ball talk wall all

[:l]

always also salt almost

[α:]

half calm

au/aw

[:]

autumn daughter draw

ea

[i:]

teach easy cheap please

[e]

heavy bread sweater weather

[ei]

break great

ear

[i]

hear dear near clear year

[ε]

bear pear wear swear

[:]

earth learn early

ee

[i:]

jeep week green three

eer

[i]

pioneer deer beer

ei/ey

[ei]

eight neighbour they

[i:]

either key

eu/ewj l r s

[ju:]

new few newspaper

[u:]

flew brew jewelry

ie/ei[s]音之後

[i:]

piece field receive

oa

[ou]

coat Joan boat goal

oar/oor

[:]

roar board door floor

oi/oy

[i]

noise point boy toilet

oo

[u:]

broom food tooth school

[u]

book look cook foot good

ou/ow

[au]

flower house count down

[ou]

know row throw though

[]

young country enough

[u:]

group you soup

our

[:]

course your four

[au]

our hourours

[:]

journey

uij l r s

[ju:i]

fluid suicide tuition

[u:]

juice fruit suit

七、非重讀音節中元音字組字群的讀音

元音字組字群

ai/ay ei/ey

[i]

Sunday foreign monkey

ow

[ou]

yellow sparrow tomorrow

元音字組在非重讀音節中讀[]音或[i]。例如:neighbour serious famous biscuit coffee

-sion -tion

[n]

impression nation

-sion在元音字母后

[n]

vision decision occasion

-tions

[n]

question suggestion

-sten

[sn]

listen

-stle

[sl]

whistle

-sure

[]

pleasure measure

-ture

[]

picture culture

八、元字組在複合詞非重讀音節中的讀音

複合詞中的第二部分不標註重音符號,但其中的元音字母元音字組仍按重讀音節拼讀規則拼讀。例如:everyday[ei] handbag[?]blackboard[:]

有些詞隨著語言的發展,前後兩部分已失去其單獨存在的意義,融合成為一個詞。其中的非重讀部分要按非重讀音節的讀音規則發音。例如:sun太陽 + day[ei]日子 Sunday[i] 星期天holy神聖 + day[ei]日子 holiday[i] 假日break中斷 + fast[α:]齋戒 breakfast[] 早餐cup茶杯 + board木板[:] cupboard[] 碗櫃

九、輔字組的讀音

輔字組

b

[b]

bike bus bag

[/]

bomb tomb

c
c
e前或在i/y

[k]

cake picture coat music

[s]

face decide cinema

ch

[]

muchchick rich teacher

[k]

school headache chemistry

[]

machine Chicago

-ck

[k]

cock pocket black knock

d

[d]

doctor bread handday

-dge

[]

bridge fridge

dr-

[dr]

children driver drink

f

[f]

five four breakfast

g
g
e i/y

[]

baggardon go

[]

orange large German

gh

[f]

cough enough

[/]

light daughter high

gu- -gue
gu
在非重讀音節中

[]

guess league dialogue

[w]

language anguish

h

[h]

hot head house hand

[/]

hour honest

j

[]

jeep jar joke join July

k

[k]

kind bike skate make week

kn-

[n]

knife know knock

l

[l]

life milk school tall

m

[m]

monkey come autumn

-mn

[m]

autumn column solemn

n
n
[k] [g]音前

[n]

not shine tennote

[]

uncle thank hungry

-ng

[]

morning young wrong

p

[p]

paper plane pig shippen

ph

[f]

elephant photo telephone

q

[k]

Iraq

qu-

[kw]

quality quite

r

[r]

red rubber ruler

s在詞首或清輔音前元音字母間或濁輔音前

[s]

sit sleep desk

[z]

music husband

sc-

[sk]

scarlet

[s]

muscle science

sh

[]

she fish shirt wash

t在通常情況下在弱讀字母ia ie io

[t]

ten letter meet

[]

patient nation

tch

[]

watch

th在通常情況下在冠詞代詞介詞連詞中在詞尾-the -ther

[θ]

thin thirty method

[]

the these withthan

[]

clothe father weather

tr-

[tr]

tree train country truck

v

[v]

very voice love leave

w

[w]

week win wake sweet wait

[/]

answer two

wh-
wh-
在字母o

[w]

what when white why

[h]

who whose whole

x在重讀元音前

[ks]

box text exercise

[gz]

examle exist exact

wr-

[r]

write

y-

[j]

yes yard yellow young

z

[z]

puzzle zero zoo

十、英語語音名詞解釋

1.音節 以元音為主體構成的發音單位,一般說來元音發音響亮,可以構成音節,輔音發音不響亮,不能單獨構成音節([m] [n] [] [l]例外)。從單詞拼寫形式上看,有幾個元字組就有幾個音節。

2.音節的劃分 ①在兩個音節的相鄰處有兩個輔字組時,一個輔字組屬於前面的音節,一個屬於後面的音節。
例如:let-ter mem-ber chil-dren daugh-ter
②在兩個音節的相鄰處只有一個輔字組時,如果前面音節里的元音是長音則輔字組屬於後面一個音節,如果前面一個音節里的元音是短音,則輔字組屬於前面一個音節。
例如:長音 pa-per stu-dent fa-ther ze-ro mo-tor far-ther
短音 sev-en stud-y moth-er ver-y mod-le weath-er

3.重讀音節 單詞中讀音特別響亮的音節。用音標標記雙音節、多音節詞的讀音時,應使用重讀符號。單音節詞多數是重讀音節,標記讀音時不需要使用重讀符號。

4.開音節 ①絕對開音節:單個元音字母后面沒有輔字組的重讀音節。例如:no blue ba-by stu-dent se-cret.
②相對開音節:單個元音字母后面加單個輔音字母,再加一個不發音字母e構成的重讀音節。例如:name these bike home ex-cuse.

5.閉音節 單個元音字母后面有輔字組(r w y 除外)且以輔字組結尾的重讀音節。例如:bag egg fish not cup

6.雙音節詞重讀規則 雙音節詞的第一個音節通常是重讀音節。
例如:stu-dent Chi-na sec-ond au-tumn in-deed
含有a- be- de- re- in- ex-等前綴的雙音節詞往往是在第二個音節上重讀。雙音節詞的重讀位置不會因增加前綴或後綴而發生改變。例如:
about before excuse repair for-′get-ful in-′ven-tor

7.多音節詞重讀規則 多音節詞通常在倒數第三個音節重讀。
例如:′el-e-phant con-grat-u-′la-tion
詞尾有-ic或-tion,-sion的詞,在-ic或-sion,-tion前的一個音節上重讀。例如:scientific impression nation

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